Civil Society in Post-Communist Europe: Old Legacies and доклад на Общие темы

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Civil Society in Post-Communist Europe: Old Legacies and New Trajectories by Pal TAMAS [Institute of Sociology, HAS, Budapest]
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ESS 2008:CEC Participation in civil actions/projects [big cities, last 12 months] 
1-at least once in 6m.  2- less then once in 6m.   3- never
ESS 2008:CEC Participation in civil actions/projects [big cities, last 12 months] 1-at least once in 6m. 2- less then once in 6m. 3- never
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ESS 2008:CEC Participation in ad hoc collective actions in residential environments [big cities, last 12 months]
1-at least once in 6m.  2- less then once in 6m.   3- never
ESS 2008:CEC Participation in ad hoc collective actions in residential environments [big cities, last 12 months] 1-at least once in 6m. 2- less then once in 6m. 3- never
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ESS2008: trade union membership in CEC big cities [actual, past]
ESS2008: trade union membership in CEC big cities [actual, past]
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ESS2008: party memberships in CEC big cities [actual]
ESS2008: party memberships in CEC big cities [actual]
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Civil Society in Communism: Explanations
Fuzzy concept of the post-68 East European anti-authoritarian Left- = Volk, people
It was real, but the label was strongly modified by „semipermeability” of the private/public borders
Temporary, or even ad hoc mobilization in the public space . Overgeneralization of the 1980-81 Solidarnosc experience
It existed as an answer to the strong state. The weak post-comm.state dismantled it.
„anti-politics”programs- dissident’s self-defence in authoritarian environments- entrance ticket to future political class
Civil Society in Communism: Explanations Fuzzy concept of the post-68 East European anti-authoritarian Left- = Volk, people It was real, but the label was strongly modified by „semipermeability” of the private/public borders Temporary, or even ad hoc mobilization in the public space . Overgeneralization of the 1980-81 Solidarnosc experience It existed as an answer to the strong state. The weak post-comm.state dismantled it. „anti-politics”programs- dissident’s self-defence in authoritarian environments- entrance ticket to future political class
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DIVERSITY OF NATIONAL CIVIL REGIMES OF POST-COMMUNISM
Explanatory factors:
Style of fragmentalization/diversity in society
Ideologies of government spending and social control
Grassroots traditions of conflict and confrontation in the state/society relationship
DIVERSITY OF NATIONAL CIVIL REGIMES OF POST-COMMUNISM Explanatory factors: Style of fragmentalization/diversity in society Ideologies of government spending and social control Grassroots traditions of conflict and confrontation in the state/society relationship
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BIFURCATION OF STRATEGIES
Transnational [global and European]
„Orange” national regimes
Questions:
Is the combination of A. and B. possible, and if yes, then with which typology?
Strong state’s reconstruction: impact on civil revival?
BIFURCATION OF STRATEGIES Transnational [global and European] „Orange” national regimes Questions: Is the combination of A. and B. possible, and if yes, then with which typology? Strong state’s reconstruction: impact on civil revival?
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IDEOLOGICAL PROFILS OF „NATIONAL” AND „EUROPEAN” CIVIL SOCIETY REGIMES
key dimensions:
-government social welfare spending
-scale of the non-profit sector
Traditional national regimes:
a.authoritarian-distributive- overregulates social order+protesting civil society
b.Liberal- civil society=alternative to low government social spending
c.Corporatist= the state acts in common with non-profits
d.Social democratic- extensive state+advocacy of the civil society

New European[?] regimes:
a.Corporatist-social-democratic mosaic welfare regimes
b.Flexicurity in Social Economy –promotion of social risk taking
IDEOLOGICAL PROFILS OF „NATIONAL” AND „EUROPEAN” CIVIL SOCIETY REGIMES key dimensions: -government social welfare spending -scale of the non-profit sector Traditional national regimes: a.authoritarian-distributive- overregulates social order+protesting civil society b.Liberal- civil society=alternative to low government social spending c.Corporatist= the state acts in common with non-profits d.Social democratic- extensive state+advocacy of the civil society New European[?] regimes: a.Corporatist-social-democratic mosaic welfare regimes b.Flexicurity in Social Economy –promotion of social risk taking
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„EUROPEAN GOVERNMENT FAILURE”
Explanatory theories for Transeuropean civil networks:
Interdependence theory- collaboration with Transeuropean governance- generated from above legitimation for bureacratic actions
Development perspective- pioneer function in the most uncertain terrains of governance
European government failure- different public goods interpretations + cultural heterogeneity of the population
„EUROPEAN GOVERNMENT FAILURE” Explanatory theories for Transeuropean civil networks: Interdependence theory- collaboration with Transeuropean governance- generated from above legitimation for bureacratic actions Development perspective- pioneer function in the most uncertain terrains of governance European government failure- different public goods interpretations + cultural heterogeneity of the population
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LIMITS OF THE EUROPEAN VOLUNTEERISM
BENEFICIARIES 
-varieties of public+ social benefit
-distributive impacts
-effects on public policy
NICHE ISSUES- where is the NGO niche in the European governance structures
REVENUE DEPENDENCY- growing reliance on service fees, government contracts, overseas grants
ADVOCACY IN BRUSSELS- differences of Left-Right landscapes
LIMITS OF THE EUROPEAN VOLUNTEERISM BENEFICIARIES -varieties of public+ social benefit -distributive impacts -effects on public policy NICHE ISSUES- where is the NGO niche in the European governance structures REVENUE DEPENDENCY- growing reliance on service fees, government contracts, overseas grants ADVOCACY IN BRUSSELS- differences of Left-Right landscapes
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NEO-GRAMSCIAN PERSPECTIVES ON THE TRANSEUROPEAN CIVIL SOCIETY
Minimum spontaneity + strong presence of leadership & movement from below
European civil socity is integrally connected to the „Transeuropean state”
But there is public space for emergence of counter-hegemonic and emancipatory forces
„WAR OF POSITION” instead of „WAR OF MANOEUVRE”
NEO-GRAMSCIAN PERSPECTIVES ON THE TRANSEUROPEAN CIVIL SOCIETY Minimum spontaneity + strong presence of leadership & movement from below European civil socity is integrally connected to the „Transeuropean state” But there is public space for emergence of counter-hegemonic and emancipatory forces „WAR OF POSITION” instead of „WAR OF MANOEUVRE”
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POST-SOVIET CIVIC IDEOLOGIES
Actors- new urban professional class
Strategies of symbolic control in public space
Stabilization of elite role sets via post-modern cultural scene and not through institutions.
Maximalist movements- occupation of politics and not only co-habitation with it [non-traditional civil movements with „security considerations” of the new middle class
POST-SOVIET CIVIC IDEOLOGIES Actors- new urban professional class Strategies of symbolic control in public space Stabilization of elite role sets via post-modern cultural scene and not through institutions. Maximalist movements- occupation of politics and not only co-habitation with it [non-traditional civil movements with „security considerations” of the new middle class
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Risk processing strategies of the „orange” middle class
Risk processing strategies of the „orange” middle class
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SYMBOLIC WORK IN „ORANGE” TRANSFORMATIONS
a.Introduce a radical change in the system of signification of the social world
b.Represent this change as legitimate
c.Claim that authors are masters of social change
d.Create new patron-clientele relationships
e.Introduce a new common speech community of modernizers as an elite group into the public space
SYMBOLIC WORK IN „ORANGE” TRANSFORMATIONS a.Introduce a radical change in the system of signification of the social world b.Represent this change as legitimate c.Claim that authors are masters of social change d.Create new patron-clientele relationships e.Introduce a new common speech community of modernizers as an elite group into the public space
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DISCOURSE ON EXPERIMENTAL REVOLUTIONARY CULTURE
Labeling [verbal occupation] is more important as real actions
Instread of past-oriented message- messages on projected dependencies
Visions on leapfrogging modernization
Centrality of the Sollen, revolt against the Sein
Ignorance of tools and institution building, sacralization of shortcuts in development
DISCOURSE ON EXPERIMENTAL REVOLUTIONARY CULTURE Labeling [verbal occupation] is more important as real actions Instread of past-oriented message- messages on projected dependencies Visions on leapfrogging modernization Centrality of the Sollen, revolt against the Sein Ignorance of tools and institution building, sacralization of shortcuts in development
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Perspectives I: nationalist/populistic integration
Nationalist mobilization
Scapegoat building
Self-simulation as victims
Exlusion og marginals and minorities
LOWER MIDDLE CLASS, AS CARRIER OF THE NATION
Perspectives I: nationalist/populistic integration Nationalist mobilization Scapegoat building Self-simulation as victims Exlusion og marginals and minorities LOWER MIDDLE CLASS, AS CARRIER OF THE NATION
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Perspectives II- active „orange” regimes
The middle class is unable to stabilize its positions with symbolic tools. Growing division between realists and cultural power oriented groups.
Dramatic contraversies between middle class radicals and compromise seekers. In the national society radicals become marginalized, therefore they need more foreign support.
Controversies between movement type and elite oriented groups
Home politics is disaggregating, temporary foreign dependency programs are integrating the new middle class
Perspectives II- active „orange” regimes The middle class is unable to stabilize its positions with symbolic tools. Growing division between realists and cultural power oriented groups. Dramatic contraversies between middle class radicals and compromise seekers. In the national society radicals become marginalized, therefore they need more foreign support. Controversies between movement type and elite oriented groups Home politics is disaggregating, temporary foreign dependency programs are integrating the new middle class