SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE SEARCHING Sheila Fisken University of Edinburgh доклад на Общие темы

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The literature searching process
“is not an exact science but an art.” 
Samuel Butler

Try to think of the process as a
‘journey not a destination’ Hearst 1999
The literature searching process “is not an exact science but an art.” Samuel Butler Try to think of the process as a ‘journey not a destination’ Hearst 1999
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Steps in the Review Process
Steps in the Review Process
Defining and refining the research question
Divide into concepts (PICO)
Think about synonyms of key concepts
Think of best combination of concepts
Identify resources
Test strategy 
Revise strategy
Re-test strategy
Adapt strategy for different databases
Steps in the Review Process Steps in the Review Process Defining and refining the research question Divide into concepts (PICO) Think about synonyms of key concepts Think of best combination of concepts Identify resources Test strategy Revise strategy Re-test strategy Adapt strategy for different databases
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For this lecture we will be using the 
For this lecture we will be using the 
research question for searching demonstrations.
What is the effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?
For this lecture we will be using the For this lecture we will be using the research question for searching demonstrations. What is the effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?
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GETTING STARTED
GETTING STARTED
Is there a recent review in your research area ?
Check out Cochrane
Check out Medline using the Basic Search 
Check out Google and Google Scholar
GETTING STARTED GETTING STARTED Is there a recent review in your research area ? Check out Cochrane Check out Medline using the Basic Search Check out Google and Google Scholar
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Click on the links for video screenshots
How to find Database List
Quick Cochrane Search
Basic Medline Search
Click on the links for video screenshots How to find Database List Quick Cochrane Search Basic Medline Search
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Pearl Growing
Pearl Growing
From one relevant article you can use Footnote Chasing and Citation searching to identify other key papers, relevant MeSH terms and keywords.
Cognitive behavior therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: a multi centre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2001, 357, 841-847 Prins JB et al
Pearl Growing Pearl Growing From one relevant article you can use Footnote Chasing and Citation searching to identify other key papers, relevant MeSH terms and keywords. Cognitive behavior therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: a multi centre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2001, 357, 841-847 Prins JB et al
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Find Web of Science in the A-Z list
Find Web of Science in the A-Z list
Web of Knowledge Cited Ref Search
Find Web of Science in the A-Z list Find Web of Science in the A-Z list Web of Knowledge Cited Ref Search
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What is the effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?
What is the effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?
P :   Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
I  :   Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
C:    Other therapies or Placebo ?
O:    Reduced symptoms  ?
What is the effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome? What is the effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome? P : Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome I : Cognitive Behaviour Therapy C: Other therapies or Placebo ? O: Reduced symptoms ?
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Think of synonyms, alternative spellings and truncation possibilities.
Think of synonyms, alternative spellings and truncation possibilities.
CBT. Behavior/Behaviour Therap*
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, CFS, ME, Post-viral fatigue syndrome*
Limits: Adults, Humans, 1990-2011
Study design: Trial, randomised controlled trial, systematic review, observational study.
Think of synonyms, alternative spellings and truncation possibilities. Think of synonyms, alternative spellings and truncation possibilities. CBT. Behavior/Behaviour Therap* Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, CFS, ME, Post-viral fatigue syndrome* Limits: Adults, Humans, 1990-2011 Study design: Trial, randomised controlled trial, systematic review, observational study.
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Use the database specific indexing eg Medline MeSH and EMTREE (Embase) and remember that they may differ.
Use the database specific indexing eg Medline MeSH and EMTREE (Embase) and remember that they may differ.
Use textwords with variants and synonyms
Truncation
Wildcards    e.g.   behavio?r
Adjacency searching e.g cognitive adj3 therap*
Field limits  e.g. trial.ti,ab
Publication types
Use the database specific indexing eg Medline MeSH and EMTREE (Embase) and remember that they may differ. Use the database specific indexing eg Medline MeSH and EMTREE (Embase) and remember that they may differ. Use textwords with variants and synonyms Truncation Wildcards e.g. behavio?r Adjacency searching e.g cognitive adj3 therap* Field limits e.g. trial.ti,ab Publication types
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Which Database ?
Which Database ?

Medline
PsychINFO
Embase
Web of Knowledge
Which Database ? Which Database ? Medline PsychINFO Embase Web of Knowledge
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Medline 
Medline 
Why use it?
Good coverage of wide range of clinical medical topics
One of the longest periods of coverage: from 1966, with over 15million records 
Very strong and widely recognised controlled thesaurus of MeSH (Medline Subject Headings) for good relevancy of results. Transparent navigation of MeSH terms allows searcher to ‘see inside’ the organisation of the database
Ovid interface has excellent search refining tools, and several save options including auto-alert
Bear in mind...
Long indexing delay: 3 to 6 months for complete records (Pre-medline helps to overcome this)
Very large: over 11 million records, so requires sifting through results
Of the biomedical, science and social science databases one of the weaker ones for psychiatry and psychology
Journal coverage weighted toward North American titles
Does not usually index publications other than journal articles
Dozier, M (2011)
Medline Medline Why use it? Good coverage of wide range of clinical medical topics One of the longest periods of coverage: from 1966, with over 15million records Very strong and widely recognised controlled thesaurus of MeSH (Medline Subject Headings) for good relevancy of results. Transparent navigation of MeSH terms allows searcher to ‘see inside’ the organisation of the database Ovid interface has excellent search refining tools, and several save options including auto-alert Bear in mind... Long indexing delay: 3 to 6 months for complete records (Pre-medline helps to overcome this) Very large: over 11 million records, so requires sifting through results Of the biomedical, science and social science databases one of the weaker ones for psychiatry and psychology Journal coverage weighted toward North American titles Does not usually index publications other than journal articles Dozier, M (2011)
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EMBASE
EMBASE

Why use it?
Good coverage of wide range of clinical medical topics, but particularly strong in pharmacology and psychiatry when compared with Medline.
Good European journal coverage
Well structured controlled thesaurus (Emtree) for good relevancy of results
In addition to journal articles, covers meetings, conferences and symposia
Shorter Indexing delay than Medline: 4 to 8 weeks
BUT

Coverage: 1980 to present
EMBASE EMBASE Why use it? Good coverage of wide range of clinical medical topics, but particularly strong in pharmacology and psychiatry when compared with Medline. Good European journal coverage Well structured controlled thesaurus (Emtree) for good relevancy of results In addition to journal articles, covers meetings, conferences and symposia Shorter Indexing delay than Medline: 4 to 8 weeks BUT Coverage: 1980 to present
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PsycINFO Why use it?
PsycINFO Why use it?
Coverage back to 1887
Well structured controlled thesaurus
Indexes more than just journal articles: dissertations and books, including book chapters
Good for all aspects of mental health
Good for social, behavioural and psychological aspects of health and illness
BUT
Comparatively small database: approximately 1.5 million records
PsycINFO Why use it? PsycINFO Why use it? Coverage back to 1887 Well structured controlled thesaurus Indexes more than just journal articles: dissertations and books, including book chapters Good for all aspects of mental health Good for social, behavioural and psychological aspects of health and illness BUT Comparatively small database: approximately 1.5 million records
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AMED (Allied and Alternative Medicine) 
AMED (Allied and Alternative Medicine) 
Why use it?
Subjects covered include acupuncture, homeopathy, palliative care, Chinese medicine, hospice care, physiotherapy, chiropractic, hypnosis, podiatry, herbalism, occupational therapy, rehabilitation, holistic treatments and osteopathy.
Controlled thesaurus terms (based on MeSH) are used
BUT
Updated quarterly
Not all subjects have been covered since 1985: palliative care is since 1997, speech and language therapy since 1999. 
Coverage: 1985 to present
Number of journals indexed: nearly 600 (mostly European journals)
AMED (Allied and Alternative Medicine) AMED (Allied and Alternative Medicine) Why use it? Subjects covered include acupuncture, homeopathy, palliative care, Chinese medicine, hospice care, physiotherapy, chiropractic, hypnosis, podiatry, herbalism, occupational therapy, rehabilitation, holistic treatments and osteopathy. Controlled thesaurus terms (based on MeSH) are used BUT Updated quarterly Not all subjects have been covered since 1985: palliative care is since 1997, speech and language therapy since 1999. Coverage: 1985 to present Number of journals indexed: nearly 600 (mostly European journals)
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VIDEOSCREENCAST OF a Medline 
VIDEOSCREENCAST OF a Medline 
Search using Mesh headings
Medline search
VIDEOSCREENCAST OF a Medline VIDEOSCREENCAST OF a Medline Search using Mesh headings Medline search
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Savoie et al (2000) estimated that 29.2% of items in their review were uncovered by:
Savoie et al (2000) estimated that 29.2% of items in their review were uncovered by:
searching the web
handsearching
scanning reference lists
personal communication 
searching specialised databases and web sites.
Wallace et al. 
11 of 65 trials (17%) in end stage renal disease reviews were found by searching beyond major databases.
Savoie et al (2000) estimated that 29.2% of items in their review were uncovered by: Savoie et al (2000) estimated that 29.2% of items in their review were uncovered by: searching the web handsearching scanning reference lists personal communication searching specialised databases and web sites. Wallace et al. 11 of 65 trials (17%) in end stage renal disease reviews were found by searching beyond major databases.
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Beyond the Databases
Beyond the Databases
Long lead times before publication: 
publication gaps after conference presentation
Cheng et al (1998)
Only 8.1% of a set of conference papers achieved publication within 12 months, 40% within 5 years
Hopewell et al (2007) Cochrane review
trials with positive results are published sooner than other trials
indexing lag – between publication and recording in databases
Beyond the Databases Beyond the Databases Long lead times before publication: publication gaps after conference presentation Cheng et al (1998) Only 8.1% of a set of conference papers achieved publication within 12 months, 40% within 5 years Hopewell et al (2007) Cochrane review trials with positive results are published sooner than other trials indexing lag – between publication and recording in databases
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Egger M et al (2003) How important are comprehensive literature searches and the assessment of trial quality in systematic reviews? Empirical study. 
Egger M et al (2003) How important are comprehensive literature searches and the assessment of trial quality in systematic reviews? Empirical study. 
Assesses effect of non-English studies, grey literature and non-MEDLINE recorded studies on the effects of meta-analyses of SRs of more than 5 RCTs.
Suggests that with limited resources, fewer sources might be searched without compromising efforts to reduce bias
Recommends adequate quality assessment of studies before inclusion in reviews
Does not assess the quality of the searching employed by review teams
Generated ongoing debate
Egger M et al (2003) How important are comprehensive literature searches and the assessment of trial quality in systematic reviews? Empirical study. Egger M et al (2003) How important are comprehensive literature searches and the assessment of trial quality in systematic reviews? Empirical study. Assesses effect of non-English studies, grey literature and non-MEDLINE recorded studies on the effects of meta-analyses of SRs of more than 5 RCTs. Suggests that with limited resources, fewer sources might be searched without compromising efforts to reduce bias Recommends adequate quality assessment of studies before inclusion in reviews Does not assess the quality of the searching employed by review teams Generated ongoing debate
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List databases searched;
Note the dates of the last search for each database AND the period searched;
Note any language or publication status restrictions 
List grey literature sources;
List individuals or organizations contacted;
List any journals and conference proceedings specifically handsearched for the review; 
Detail may be curtailed if full information is provided in appendix/internet site e.g.
List databases searched; Note the dates of the last search for each database AND the period searched; Note any language or publication status restrictions List grey literature sources; List individuals or organizations contacted; List any journals and conference proceedings specifically handsearched for the review;  Detail may be curtailed if full information is provided in appendix/internet site e.g.
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Top Tips
Top Tips
Keep notes of searches and results
Scope and Re-Scope
Test and Re-Test- gold standard
Avoid ‘scope creep’ (Booth 2011)
Accept the ‘point of diminishing returns’
Know when to STOP
Searching is never fully transparent, nor reproducible but make it Rigorous.
Top Tips Top Tips Keep notes of searches and results Scope and Re-Scope Test and Re-Test- gold standard Avoid ‘scope creep’ (Booth 2011) Accept the ‘point of diminishing returns’ Know when to STOP Searching is never fully transparent, nor reproducible but make it Rigorous.
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Enjoy the journey and If you need any help and advice on the way then email me 
@
Sheila.Fisken@ed.ac.uk
Enjoy the journey and If you need any help and advice on the way then email me @ Sheila.Fisken@ed.ac.uk
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