Adjectives in English доклад по теме Английский язык

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Adjectives in English
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Degrees of Comparison
There are three degrees:
Degrees of Comparison There are three degrees:
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One-syllable Adjectives
Usually, the ending er/est is simply added to the positive form of the adjective. For example: 
		fast - faster  	strong - stronger  
			tall - tallest  	young - youngest

When an adjective ends in a silent e, the silent e is dropped before the ending er/est is added. 
	e.g.:  	brave - braver - bravest  
			close - closer - closest 
			late - later - latest
One-syllable Adjectives Usually, the ending er/est is simply added to the positive form of the adjective. For example: fast - faster  strong - stronger  tall - tallest  young - youngest When an adjective ends in a silent e, the silent e is dropped before the ending er/est is added. e.g.:  brave - braver - bravest  close - closer - closest late - later - latest
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When an adjective ends in y preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i before the ending er/est is added. 
When an adjective ends in y preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i before the ending er/est is added. 
e.g.:  dry - drier-driest;   	easy - easier-easiest

When an adjective ends in a CVC and the last consonant is other than w, x or y or a double vowel - we double the final consonant before adding er/est is added. 
e.g.:  big - bigger-biggest  (hot - hotter  sad - saddest

but:
e.g.: loud - louder;  neat - neater;  soon - sooner
When an adjective ends in y preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i before the ending er/est is added. When an adjective ends in y preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i before the ending er/est is added. e.g.:  dry - drier-driest;   easy - easier-easiest When an adjective ends in a CVC and the last consonant is other than w, x or y or a double vowel - we double the final consonant before adding er/est is added. e.g.:  big - bigger-biggest  (hot - hotter  sad - saddest but: e.g.: loud - louder;  neat - neater;  soon - sooner
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Two and more syllable adjectives
Adjectives of 2 or more syllables (unless it ends with r or y), we make superior by using:
	the most / the least adjective noun.
This book is the most / the least interesting  book I have ever read.
Two and more syllable adjectives Adjectives of 2 or more syllables (unless it ends with r or y), we make superior by using: the most / the least adjective noun. This book is the most / the least interesting book I have ever read.
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Two and more syllable adjectives
Adjectives of 2 or more syllables (unless it ends with r or y), we compare by using:
	noun verb more / less ____ than noun.
This book is more interesting than that book.
My ad is less convincing  than your ad.
Two and more syllable adjectives Adjectives of 2 or more syllables (unless it ends with r or y), we compare by using: noun verb more / less ____ than noun. This book is more interesting than that book. My ad is less convincing than your ad.
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Irregular Forms of Comparison
Irregular Forms of Comparison
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Adjective Order
Adjective Order
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Fact Adjectives
Fact Adjectives
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Opinion + Fact Adjectives
Opinion + Fact Adjectives
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Suffixation
-ful		having…		           useful
			giving…		            helpful
-less		without			 fearless
-ly		having the qualities of	 cowardly
-like		‘’			            childlike
-y			like…			            creamy
			covered with…		  hairy
-ish		belonging to		            Turkish
			having the character	  foolish
-ian		in the tradition of	              Darwinian
Suffixation -ful having… useful giving… helpful -less without fearless -ly having the qualities of cowardly -like ‘’ childlike -y like… creamy covered with… hairy -ish belonging to Turkish having the character foolish -ian in the tradition of Darwinian
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Other  adjective suffixes:
Other  adjective suffixes:
-able/-ible	= worthy/able: 	readable/edible
-ish		= somewhat		youngish
-ed		= having			balconied
Other adjective suffixes: Other adjective suffixes: -able/-ible = worthy/able: readable/edible -ish = somewhat youngish -ed = having balconied
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Adjective suffixes meaning
Adjective suffixes meaning
 “having the characteristics of…/ peculiar to…/ full of ….”

-al			criminal
(also –ial		editorial
and –ical		musical
-ic			heroic
-ive			attractive
(also – ative		affirmative
and  -itive		sensitive
-ous			virtuous
(also –eous		courteous
and –ious		vivacious
Adjective suffixes meaning Adjective suffixes meaning “having the characteristics of…/ peculiar to…/ full of ….” -al criminal (also –ial editorial and –ical musical -ic heroic -ive attractive (also – ative affirmative and -itive sensitive -ous virtuous (also –eous courteous and –ious vivacious
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Suffixation
NOTE!	-ic    vs. 	-ical	 
(difference in meaning)
an economic miracle	 	( in the economy)
the car is economical to run	( money-saving)
a historic building		(with a history)
historical research		(pertaining to history)
Suffixation NOTE! -ic vs. -ical (difference in meaning) an economic miracle ( in the economy) the car is economical to run ( money-saving) a historic building (with a history) historical research (pertaining to history)
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Adjectives as Nouns = Substantivized Adjectives
Fully substantivized – have all characteristics of a noun
a native - the natives, a Russian - the Russians, a German - the Germans.

Partially substantivized – are used as nouns only to show a group, many
the rich, the unemployed, the good, the evil, the beau­tiful, the English.
Adjectives as Nouns = Substantivized Adjectives Fully substantivized – have all characteristics of a noun a native - the natives, a Russian - the Russians, a German - the Germans. Partially substantivized – are used as nouns only to show a group, many the rich, the unemployed, the good, the evil, the beau­tiful, the English.

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