part 2 - Updated 25.1.11 Israel large Gulls fast identification guide доклад по теме Окружающий мир

Вашему вниманию предлагается доклад и презентация по теме part 2 - Updated 25.1.11 Israel large Gulls fast identification guide. Данны материал, представленный на 59 страницах, поможет подготовится к уроку Окружающий мир. Он будет полезен как ученикам и студентам, так и преподавателям школ и вузов. Вы можете ознакомиться и скачать этот и любой другой доклад у нас на сайте. Все материалы абсолютно бесплатны и доступны. Ссылку на скачивание Вы можете найти вконце страницы. Если материал Вам понравились – поделитесь им с друзьями с помощью социальных кнопок и добавьте сайт в закладки в своем браузере.
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Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini
Main ID features at rest

	Bill – strong and heavy  
	Gonys – big and prominent

	Legs –  long and thick 
	
	Eye –  pale iris


	Size – can vary from very large gulls
	(slide 3) to very slim gentle females (slide 9) , but most will look as large gulls 
	
	Mantle color –  very dark, perhaps the darkest of all “pale gulls”, can be as dark as fuscus intermedius

	Special features – in winter, nape and back of head are heavily streaked. From mid January – March nape becomes clean white, or with faint streaks on nape

	Status in Israel – main wintering population arrives November – mid March, mainly along Med. coast and Eilat. Migrating birds arrive late September, can be seen mainly at Ashdod seashore and ponds (Yavne 4). 
           Only ssp. heuglini  recorded in Israel, taimyrensis unrecorded yet.
Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini Main ID features at rest Bill – strong and heavy Gonys – big and prominent Legs – long and thick Eye – pale iris Size – can vary from very large gulls (slide 3) to very slim gentle females (slide 9) , but most will look as large gulls Mantle color – very dark, perhaps the darkest of all “pale gulls”, can be as dark as fuscus intermedius Special features – in winter, nape and back of head are heavily streaked. From mid January – March nape becomes clean white, or with faint streaks on nape Status in Israel – main wintering population arrives November – mid March, mainly along Med. coast and Eilat. Migrating birds arrive late September, can be seen mainly at Ashdod seashore and ponds (Yavne 4). Only ssp. heuglini recorded in Israel, taimyrensis unrecorded yet.
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Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini  winter plumage, Ashdod 15/1/08
Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini winter plumage, Ashdod 15/1/08
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Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini, spring plumage, Ashdod 15/1/08
Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini, spring plumage, Ashdod 15/1/08
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Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini, winter plumage, Ashdod 15/1/08
Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini, winter plumage, Ashdod 15/1/08
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Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini, Ashdod 30/1/10
Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini, Ashdod 30/1/10
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Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini, Ashdod 6/1/10
Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini, Ashdod 6/1/10
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Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini,  Eilat 1/3/08
Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini, Eilat 1/3/08
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Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini, very small female, Ashdod (Yavne 4) 19/9/09
(in the back - Baltic Gull)
Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini, very small female, Ashdod (Yavne 4) 19/9/09 (in the back - Baltic Gull)
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Heuglin’s Gull – Larus heuglini  2nd winter, possibly male 
Ashdod seashore 2/1/10
Heuglin’s Gull – Larus heuglini 2nd winter, possibly male Ashdod seashore 2/1/10
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Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini 2nd CY, 
Ashdod (Yavne 4) 11/12/10
Heuglin’s Gull - Larus heuglini 2nd CY, Ashdod (Yavne 4) 11/12/10
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Информация вложена в изображении слайда
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Информация вложена в изображении слайда
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Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus
Main ID features at rest

	Bill – long and straight, rather thin

 	Gonys – small to unnoticeable

	Legs – very short and moderately thin 
	
	Eye – dark till 2nd summer, in adults very pale but not white. Orbital ring red in summer and autumn, but red still noticeable in winter

	Size – medium sized gull slender with elongated rear, it is the smallest of all large gulls and the easiest to identify, when compared with the Intermedius and the graellsii (not definitely recorded in Israel) who are much paler
	
Mantle Color – usually coal Black, but shows variations with individuals showing paler mantle, fron heuglini type (in intermedius) up to armenicus pale (in Graellsii)

	Special features –  some individuals (especially from Norway) can be heavily streaked on the head and nape (see slide 42)

	Status in Israel – second commonest gull after armenicus, especially on migration, in autumn seen from mid August in migration and in spring until late May. Winters in Israel in large numbers mainly in Ashdod area.
Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus Main ID features at rest Bill – long and straight, rather thin Gonys – small to unnoticeable Legs – very short and moderately thin Eye – dark till 2nd summer, in adults very pale but not white. Orbital ring red in summer and autumn, but red still noticeable in winter Size – medium sized gull slender with elongated rear, it is the smallest of all large gulls and the easiest to identify, when compared with the Intermedius and the graellsii (not definitely recorded in Israel) who are much paler Mantle Color – usually coal Black, but shows variations with individuals showing paler mantle, fron heuglini type (in intermedius) up to armenicus pale (in Graellsii) Special features – some individuals (especially from Norway) can be heavily streaked on the head and nape (see slide 42) Status in Israel – second commonest gull after armenicus, especially on migration, in autumn seen from mid August in migration and in spring until late May. Winters in Israel in large numbers mainly in Ashdod area.
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Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus, Ashdod 19/9/09
Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus, Ashdod 19/9/09
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Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus, Ashdod 19/9/09
 Image by Gal Shon ©
Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus, Ashdod 19/9/09 Image by Gal Shon ©
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Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus, Ashdod 9/1/08
Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus, Ashdod 9/1/08
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Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus 1st winter, (ringed as pullus on 27.7.08) 
Ashdod 27/2/09
Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus 1st winter, (ringed as pullus on 27.7.08) Ashdod 27/2/09
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Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus 1st winter Ashdod 2/10/09
Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus 1st winter Ashdod 2/10/09
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Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus 1st winter, Ashdod 24/9/09
Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus 1st winter, Ashdod 24/9/09
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Информация вложена в изображении слайда
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Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus, advanced 1st winter, 
Ashdod 27/2/09
Baltic Gull – Larus fuscus fuscus, advanced 1st winter, Ashdod 27/2/09
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Lesser Black-backed Gull - Larus fuscus intermedius
Main ID features at rest

	Bill – as in fuscus

	Gonys – as in fuscus 

	Legs – as in fuscus 
	
	Eye –  as in fuscus 
	
Size –  as in fuscus 

	Mantle Color –  variation between dark heuglini to armenicus.
It is important to mention that there are as many as 6-8 black / grey levels within the normal variation of this taxon, and therefore it is difficult to positively ID unringed birds according to mantle colors.  
	Status in Israel – as in fuscus but much rarer,  some tens are possibly seen from September to late March. See also next slide.
	Most are regarded as ‘intermedius-type”, with small female heuglini being the main pitfall. Best separated by head and neck streaking.
Lesser Black-backed Gull - Larus fuscus intermedius Main ID features at rest Bill – as in fuscus Gonys – as in fuscus Legs – as in fuscus Eye – as in fuscus Size – as in fuscus Mantle Color – variation between dark heuglini to armenicus. It is important to mention that there are as many as 6-8 black / grey levels within the normal variation of this taxon, and therefore it is difficult to positively ID unringed birds according to mantle colors. Status in Israel – as in fuscus but much rarer, some tens are possibly seen from September to late March. See also next slide. Most are regarded as ‘intermedius-type”, with small female heuglini being the main pitfall. Best separated by head and neck streaking.
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Информация вложена в изображении слайда
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Lesser Black-backed Gull ssp. (possibly inermedius) Ashdod 30/10/09
Lesser Black-backed Gull ssp. (possibly inermedius) Ashdod 30/10/09
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Lesser Black-backed Gull - Larus fuscus ssp 
Ashdod, 27/2/10
Lesser Black-backed Gull - Larus fuscus ssp Ashdod, 27/2/10
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Lesser Black Backed Gull – Larus fuscus ssp, Ashdod 9/1/08. Ringed in Nordfugløy, Karlsøy, Troms, Norway, in a mixed colony of L.f.intermedius and L.f.fuscus
Lesser Black Backed Gull – Larus fuscus ssp, Ashdod 9/1/08. Ringed in Nordfugløy, Karlsøy, Troms, Norway, in a mixed colony of L.f.intermedius and L.f.fuscus
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Lesser Black backed Gull – Larus fuscus intermedius (front bird), Stavanger, 2/11/02, Westkapelle, the Netherlands, Image by Mars Muusse ©
Lesser Black backed Gull – Larus fuscus intermedius (front bird), Stavanger, 2/11/02, Westkapelle, the Netherlands, Image by Mars Muusse ©
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Информация вложена в изображении слайда
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Lesser Black-backed Gull – Larus fuscus graellsii 
intergraded with ‘Dutch’ intermedius (right), and L. f. fuscus (left). 
Westkapelle, the Netherlands, 01/10/2009, image by Theo Muusse ©
Lesser Black-backed Gull – Larus fuscus graellsii intergraded with ‘Dutch’ intermedius (right), and L. f. fuscus (left). Westkapelle, the Netherlands, 01/10/2009, image by Theo Muusse ©
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Lesser Black-backed Gull – Larus fuscus graellsii, 
22/10/01, Westkapelle, the Netherlands, image by Mars Muusse ©
Lesser Black-backed Gull – Larus fuscus graellsii, 22/10/01, Westkapelle, the Netherlands, image by Mars Muusse ©
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Информация вложена в изображении слайда
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Great Black-backed Gull - Larus marinus
Main ID features at rest

	Bill –  heavy and large 

	Gonys – massive

	Legs – pink in all plumages and ages
	
	Eye – pale but not white  
	
Size –  the largest of all gulls, larger than ichthyaetus 

	Mantle color –  variation between black 
as fuscus or paler between heuglini and fuscus 

	Status in Israel – extremely rare, 
	but since January 2006 an adult has been returning annually to winter at Acre port and coast from 3rd week of October – mid March
Great Black-backed Gull - Larus marinus Main ID features at rest Bill – heavy and large Gonys – massive Legs – pink in all plumages and ages Eye – pale but not white Size – the largest of all gulls, larger than ichthyaetus Mantle color – variation between black as fuscus or paler between heuglini and fuscus Status in Israel – extremely rare, but since January 2006 an adult has been returning annually to winter at Acre port and coast from 3rd week of October – mid March
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Great Black-backed Gull - Larus marinus, Acre port 10/3/09
Great Black-backed Gull - Larus marinus, Acre port 10/3/09
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Great Black-backed Gull - Larus marinus, Acre port 10/3/09
Great Black-backed Gull - Larus marinus, Acre port 10/3/09
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Great Black backed Gull - Larus marinus, Acre Port 10/3/09
Great Black backed Gull - Larus marinus, Acre Port 10/3/09
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Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus 

Acre port 1/1/10
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus Acre port 1/1/10
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Pallas’s Gull - Larus ichthyaetus
Main ID features at rest

	This is a distinctive and well-described gull, shows rather limited variation
	
	Bill – long, orange with black ring and white tip, swollen towards tip 

	Gonys – no special characters

	Legs –  no special characters
	
	Eye –  dark
	
Size –  the second largest gull in Israel
	(after marinus) 

	Head– in summer completely black with beautiful white (“broken”) orbital ring.
	In winter and in all ages (from 1st winter onwards) head shows extensive black markings

	Mantle Color –quite pale grey

	Status in Israel – a winter visitor from late October – late March (but most arrive in January).
Seen along the costal areas, in Bet She’an Valley and the kineret lake. In some years up to 2000 birds can be seen in the Bet She’an Valley.
Pallas’s Gull - Larus ichthyaetus Main ID features at rest This is a distinctive and well-described gull, shows rather limited variation Bill – long, orange with black ring and white tip, swollen towards tip Gonys – no special characters Legs – no special characters Eye – dark Size – the second largest gull in Israel (after marinus) Head– in summer completely black with beautiful white (“broken”) orbital ring. In winter and in all ages (from 1st winter onwards) head shows extensive black markings Mantle Color –quite pale grey Status in Israel – a winter visitor from late October – late March (but most arrive in January). Seen along the costal areas, in Bet She’an Valley and the kineret lake. In some years up to 2000 birds can be seen in the Bet She’an Valley.
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Pallas’s Gull - Larus ichthyaetus, Ashdod 15/1/08
Pallas’s Gull - Larus ichthyaetus, Ashdod 15/1/08
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Pallas’s Gull - Larus ichthyaetus, Ashdod 16/2/08
Pallas’s Gull - Larus ichthyaetus, Ashdod 16/2/08
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Pallas’s Gull 2nd CY - Larus ichthyaetus, Ashdod 22/1/11
Pallas’s Gull 2nd CY - Larus ichthyaetus, Ashdod 22/1/11
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Pallas’s Gull - Larus ichthyaetus, Ashdod 22/1/11
Pallas’s Gull - Larus ichthyaetus, Ashdod 22/1/11
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Pallas’s Gull - Larus ichthyaetus, Maagan michael  18/1/11
Pallas’s Gull - Larus ichthyaetus, Maagan michael 18/1/11
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Some images of unidentified gulls
These images emphasize the huge variation seen in the field
Not every gull can or should be identified
Some images of unidentified gulls These images emphasize the huge variation seen in the field Not every gull can or should be identified
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Larus sp. possibly heuglini – Eilat 1/3/08
Larus sp. possibly heuglini – Eilat 1/3/08
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Ehud Dovrat, March 2009
Ehud is the pioneer of gulls color rings tracking and of gull identification in Israel
Ehud Dovrat, March 2009 Ehud is the pioneer of gulls color rings tracking and of gull identification in Israel
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Major gull watching sites in Israel – 
where and when
Major gull watching sites in Israel – where and when
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Caspian gulls – Larus cachinnans flock in an afternoon pre-roost gathering, 
part of a 5000 birds flock , Acre Valley 22/1/10
Caspian gulls – Larus cachinnans flock in an afternoon pre-roost gathering, part of a 5000 birds flock , Acre Valley 22/1/10
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Информация вложена в изображении слайда
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Информация вложена в изображении слайда
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Mixed gulls, Ashdod: heuglini, fuscus, cachinnans, armenicus
 Ashdod 20/1/10 Yoav Perlman ©
Mixed gulls, Ashdod: heuglini, fuscus, cachinnans, armenicus Ashdod 20/1/10 Yoav Perlman ©
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Reading color rings in Israel 
Most rings in Israel are read nowadays in Ashdod sea shore and Ponds
Reading color rings in Israel Most rings in Israel are read nowadays in Ashdod sea shore and Ponds
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Reading color rings in Israel
Reading color rings in Israel
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Информация вложена в изображении слайда
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Информация вложена в изображении слайда
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Gulls color ringing in Israel
Gulls color ringing in Israel
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Some links to recommended gulls sites
Gull topography 1
Gull topography 2
www.gull-research.org (WP top site)
Identification of 2CY heuglini gull
Identification of 2CY fuscus gull
http://www.berksbirds.co.uk/articles/caspiangullid.asp
Some links to recommended gulls sites Gull topography 1 Gull topography 2 www.gull-research.org (WP top site) Identification of 2CY heuglini gull Identification of 2CY fuscus gull http://www.berksbirds.co.uk/articles/caspiangullid.asp
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Selected References
Olsen, K.M, and Larsson, H. (2005). Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. Helm, London.

Liebers, D., de Knijff, P. and Helbig, A. J. (2004). The herring gull complex is not a ring species. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 271: 893-901.
Selected References Olsen, K.M, and Larsson, H. (2005). Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. Helm, London. Liebers, D., de Knijff, P. and Helbig, A. J. (2004). The herring gull complex is not a ring species. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 271: 893-901.
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Enjoy gulling!
Enjoy gulling!
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