Group 2 Full Presentation презентация по теме Технологии

  • Stem Cell Research:
Impact on the Healthcare
System and Policies
  • Outline
1. Stem Cell Research:
What It Is and What Is It Used For
2. Embryonic vs. Adult Stem Cells:
Differences in Nature and Potential
3. The Stem Cell Controversy and Related Policies:
Impact on the National Systems
  • 1. Stem Cell Research:
What It Is and What Is It Used For
2. Embryonic vs. Adult Stem Cells:
Differences in Nature and Potential
3. The Stem Cell Controversy and Related Policies:
Impact on the National Systems
  • Stem Cells: a History Snapshot
  • Stem Cells: a History Snapshot
  • What Is a Stem Cell?
  • What Do These Properties Imply?
  • Trajectory 1 – Stem Cell Research
  • Trajectory 1 – Example 1:
Cancer Biology
  • Trajectory 1 – Example 2:
Overcoming in vitro modelling
  • Trajectory 2 - Stem Cell Therapies
  • Trajectory 2 – Example 1:
Type 1 Diabetes
  • Trajectory 2 – Example 2:
Parkinson and Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Two Important Caveats
  • 1. Stem Cell Research:
What It Is and What Is It Used For
2. Embryonic vs. Adult Stem Cells:
Differences in Nature and Potential
3. The Stem Cell Controversy and Related Policies:
Impact on the National Systems
  • A Basilar Dichotomy
  • Sources of Embryonic Stem Cells
  • Sources of Adult Stem Cells
  • Pluripotency
  • Consequences of Pluripotency
  • Impact of Embryonic Stem Cells
 over the Pharmaceutical Industry
  • More Implications of the
Embryonic vs. Adult Stem Cell Dichotomy
  • The Story So Far…
  • 1. Stem Cell Research:
What It Is and What Is It Used For
2. Embryonic vs. Adult Stem Cells:
Differences in Nature and Potential
3. The Stem Cell Controversy and Related Policies:
Impact on the National Systems
  • The Controversy
  • Parts in the Play: a Snapshot
  • Sub-Controversy: Stem Cells vs. Cloning
  • Nuclear Transfer - FAQ
  • Related Policies: USA
On August 9th, 2001, US President George W. Bush has signed an executive 
order which has restricted federally-funded human embryonic stem cell research 
to the cell lines that meet the following criteria:
  The derivation process (i.e. destruction of the blastocyst) was initiated prior to 
August 9th, 2001
 The stem cells were derived from an embryo that was created for reproductive 
purposes and, therefore, it was no longer needed
 Informed consent must have been obtained for the donation of the embryo.
What does this mean?
 It is not illegal to:
 work on new embryonic stem cell lines with funds that are not federal
 work on the already existent stem cell lines with federal funds (only 64).
 It is illegal to:
 use federal funds for stem cell research on new cell lines
 act on embryos which were created for non-reproductive purposes (and 
that therefore could continue their development)
 act on embryos without the informed consent of the couple to which the 
embryo was originally destined for reproductive purposes.
  • Effects of USA Policy – National Level
What has been put in place in the USA is an indirect constraint to human embryonic stem cell research. This means that this branch of research is not entirely forbidden, but it is restricted in that federal funds cannot be used in order to finance research on new cell lines. However, the 64 cell lines that are eligible for federally-funded research can be investigated and requested through the National Stem Cell Bank, which was instituted in order for researchers to access stem cells that were derived prior to August 2001 using excess in-vitro-fertilized embryos.
This executive order has shaped the stem cell research field in several respects. Looking at it from the perspective of private companies, those who obtained the highest benefits from it can be identified with the private companies that already owned approved cell lines, and that are linked to federally-funded researchers by cooperative agreements and contracts. Companies that do not own any approved cell lines will not be able to count on federal funding, if they aim to create new ones.
  • Who Owns the Approved Cell Lines?
  • Effects of USA Policy – International Level
  • India and Singapore:
Harnessing Embryonic Stem Cell Research
  • What About Italy?
  • A Global Perspective
  • Wrapping up…
  • …What Is Going to Happen Next?
  • Sources
  • Sources
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Stem Cell Research: Impact on the Healthcare System and Policies

Outline 1. Stem Cell Research: What It Is and What Is It Used For 2. Embryonic vs. Adult Stem Cells: Differences in Nature and Potential 3. The Stem Cell Controversy and Related Policies: Impact on the National Systems

1. Stem Cell Research: What It Is and What Is It Used For 2. Embryonic vs. Adult Stem Cells: Differences in Nature and Potential 3. The Stem Cell Controversy and Related Policies: Impact on the National Systems

Stem Cells: a History Snapshot

Stem Cells: a History Snapshot

What Is a Stem Cell?

What Do These Properties Imply?

Trajectory 1 – Stem Cell Research

Trajectory 1 – Example 1: Cancer Biology

Trajectory 1 – Example 2: Overcoming in vitro modelling

Trajectory 2 - Stem Cell Therapies

Trajectory 2 – Example 1: Type 1 Diabetes

Trajectory 2 – Example 2: Parkinson and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Two Important Caveats

1. Stem Cell Research: What It Is and What Is It Used For 2. Embryonic vs. Adult Stem Cells: Differences in Nature and Potential 3. The Stem Cell Controversy and Related Policies: Impact on the National Systems

A Basilar Dichotomy

Sources of Embryonic Stem Cells

Sources of Adult Stem Cells

Consequences of Pluripotency

Impact of Embryonic Stem Cells over the Pharmaceutical Industry

More Implications of the Embryonic vs. Adult Stem Cell Dichotomy

The Story So Far…

1. Stem Cell Research: What It Is and What Is It Used For 2. Embryonic vs. Adult Stem Cells: Differences in Nature and Potential 3. The Stem Cell Controversy and Related Policies: Impact on the National Systems

Parts in the Play: a Snapshot

Sub-Controversy: Stem Cells vs. Cloning

Nuclear Transfer - FAQ

Related Policies: USA On August 9th, 2001, US President George W. Bush has signed an executive order which has restricted federally-funded human embryonic stem cell research to the cell lines that meet the following criteria: The derivation process (i.e. destruction of the blastocyst) was initiated prior to August 9th, 2001 The stem cells were derived from an embryo that was created for reproductive purposes and, therefore, it was no longer needed Informed consent must have been obtained for the donation of the embryo. What does this mean? It is not illegal to: work on new embryonic stem cell lines with funds that are not federal work on the already existent stem cell lines with federal funds (only 64). It is illegal to: use federal funds for stem cell research on new cell lines act on embryos which were created for non-reproductive purposes (and that therefore could continue their development) act on embryos without the informed consent of the couple to which the embryo was originally destined for reproductive purposes.

Effects of USA Policy – National Level What has been put in place in the USA is an indirect constraint to human embryonic stem cell research. This means that this branch of research is not entirely forbidden, but it is restricted in that federal funds cannot be used in order to finance research on new cell lines. However, the 64 cell lines that are eligible for federally-funded research can be investigated and requested through the National Stem Cell Bank, which was instituted in order for researchers to access stem cells that were derived prior to August 2001 using excess in-vitro-fertilized embryos. This executive order has shaped the stem cell research field in several respects. Looking at it from the perspective of private companies, those who obtained the highest benefits from it can be identified with the private companies that already owned approved cell lines, and that are linked to federally-funded researchers by cooperative agreements and contracts. Companies that do not own any approved cell lines will not be able to count on federal funding, if they aim to create new ones.

Who Owns the Approved Cell Lines?

Effects of USA Policy – International Level

India and Singapore: Harnessing Embryonic Stem Cell Research

A Global Perspective

…What Is Going to Happen Next?

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